Like in most ancient societies women who were fertile were deemed successful. When a women got pregnant she gained respect from her husband, admiration from sisters and friends, and respect from society. The same was with men as the more children they had the more “manly” they seemed.
When women thought they were pregnant they would go to a doctor who would preform a detailed exam of the women’s chest, eyes, and skin.
For sterile women, they were often divorced or she and the husband decide to adopt. With a high death rate but high birthrate obtaining a child was simple.
Credit for information: http://www.library.cornell.edu/colldev/mideast/womneg.htm